Bouchard M., Poluektova T., Penrose E., Henderson M. The warrior muzhik and fakelore maiden: Russian banal nationalism on and offline

M. Bouchard - University of Northern British Columbia Canada, Prince George ORCID: 0000-0001-8807-989X
E-mail: michel.bouchard@unbc.ca

T. Poluektova - Northern State Medical University Russian Federation, Arkhangelsk ORCID: 0000-0003-0897-3037
E-mail: Uniquespirit@ya.ru

E. Penrose - University of Northern British Columbia Canada, Prince George E-mail: elena.penrose@alumni.unbc.ca M. Henderson University of Northern British Columbia Canada, Prince George
E-mail: marydmhenderson@gmail.com

 

 

 Download  |  Go to Issue #3. 2020

 

АННОТАЦИЯ. Национализм часто фигурирует в категориях политических движений, политических речей и, слишком часто, войн, натравливающих страны друг на друга или на националистических мятежников, восстающих против них. Однако, нацию и наци- онализм можно изучать и на основе обычных событий повседневной жизни, как предла- гал Майкл Биллиг (1995). Развевающиеся флаги перед домами, георгиевские ленточки или иконы, свисающие с зеркал заднего вида, маленькие символические метки принад- лежности к нации — все это подпитывает национализм, который может быть использо- ван в своих интересах более крупными политическими движениями. В настоящей ста- тье будет рассмотрено обыденное в киберпространстве, в особенности то, как создаются идеализированные образы маскулинности и феминности, как их отмечают как понравив- шиеся и делятся ими, и как такие неприметные повседневные подтверждения националь- ной общности усиливают большие национальные нарративы. Индивиды, таким образом, проявляют себя не как пассивные реципиенты националистических дискурсов, но вносят в них активный вклад, выкладывая свои фотографии в фольклористических костюмах или во время тренировок в спортивном зале. Таким образом они могут либо усиливать, либо противостоять доминирующим нарративам и участвовать в формировании наций. Это можно ясно видеть на сайтах российских социальных сетей, где онлайн-национализм как укрепляет, так и бросает вызов более ранним идеалам нации и гендера, которые перепле- таются в определении того, что значит быть русским.

 

DOI 10. 31250/2618-8600-2020-3(9)-62-89
УДК 3 16.6

 

КЛЮЧЕВЫЕ СЛОВА: русский национализм, этничность и государственность, банальный национализм, идентичность и социальные сети, этнология и этнография

 

СПИСОК ИСТОЧНИКОВ И ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

  • Andrienko Yu. I. Nationalism as a factor in the emergence of extremism. Problems of law enforcement, 2014. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/natsionalizm-kak-faktor-zarozhdeniya-ekstremizma (accessed 12.10.2019). 
  • Ashwin S. Gender, State, and Society in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia. Gender, State and Society in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia. London: Routledge, 2000, pp. 1–19. (In English).
  • Author of Anti-Gay Law Is Putin’s Conservative Champion. The Moscow Times, 2013. Available at: http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/author-of-anti-gay-law-is-putins-conservative-champion/484431.html#ixzz2bu6GP1jI. (accessed August 14, 2012). (In English). 
  • Bakardjieva M. Internet Society: The Internet in Everyday Life. London: Sage, 2005. (In English). 
  • BBC News. Russia enacts “draconian” law for bloggers and online media. BBC News. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology‑28583669 (accessed October 13, 2016) (In English). 
  • Billig M. Banal Nationalism. Sage, London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi, 1995. (In English). 
  • Boffey D. Russian hooligans were savage and organised, say England fans. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/football/2016/jun/12/russian-hooligans-savage-organised-england-fans-marseille-euro‑2016 (accessed August 30, 2016). (In English). 
  • Bouchard M. Graveyards: Russian ritual and belief pertaining to the dead. Religion, 2004, no. 34 (4), pp. 345–362. (In English). 
  • Bouchard M. La Grande Guerre patriotique: Narrations sociales et monuments à la guerre.’ Anthropologica, 2013, vol. 55 (1), pp. 113–126. (In French). 
  • Bouchard M., Podiakova T. Russian animated films and nationalism of the new millennium: the Russian phoenix rising from the ashes. Children’s film in the digital age: essays on audience, adaptation and consumer culture, 2014, pp. 109–132. (In English). 
  • Brooks J. The Russian nation imagined The Peoples of Russia as seen in popular imagery, 1860’s — 1890’s. Journal of social history, 2010, no. 43, pp. 535–557. (In English). 
  • Edensor T. National identity, popular culture and everyday life. Oxford: Berg, 2002. (In English). 
  • Foxall A. Photographing Vladimir Putin: Masculinity, Nationalism and Visuality in Russian Political Culture / Geopolitics, 2013, no. 18 (1), pp. 132–156. (In English). 
  • Gavrilova N. S., Gavrilov L. A. Rapidly Aging Populations: Russia / Eastern Europe. International handbook of population aging. Netherland: Springer, 2009. (In English). 
  • Gitman S., Stigneev V. Photographers of Russia, unite yourselves!’ Art Journal, 1994, no. 53, pp. 28–30. (In English). 
  • Hopkins N., Dixon J. Space, place, and identity: issues for political psychology. Political psychology, 2006, no. 27 (2), pp. 173–185. (In English). 
  • Internet Live Stats. Russia Internet users. Internet live stats. Available at: http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/russia/ (accessed August 30, 2016). (In English). 
  • Isaacs R., Polese A. Between “imagined” and “real” nation-building: identities and nationhood in post-Soviet Central Asia. Nationalities papers, 2015, 43 (3), pp. 371–382. (In English). 
  • Johnson J. E., Saarinen A. Twenty-first-century feminisms under repression: gender regime change and the women’s crisis center movement in Russia. Signs, 2013, no. 38 (3), pp. 543–567. (In English). 
  • Kharchev A. G. Brak i sem’ya v SSSR [Marriage and family in the USSR]. Moscow: Mysl Publ., 1997. 367 p. (In Russian). 
  • Kholmogorov E. [The Russian nation is united in its history]. Zavtra, 2018, September 8. Available at: http://zavtra.ru/blogs/russkie_i_velikoe_proishozhdenie_narodov (accessed August 30, 2019). (In Russian).
  • Kinsman P. Landscape, race and national identity: the photography of Ingrid pollard. Area, 1995, no. 27, pp. 300–310. (In English). 
  • Klimenko N. S. [Contradictions of Russian Masculinity: From Ancient Rus to the 21 century]. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. V. P. Astaf’eva [Bulletin of the V. P. Astafieva Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University], 2012. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/protivorechiya-rossiyskoy-maskulinnosti-ot-drevney-rusi-do-xxi-veka (accessed August 14, 2019). (In Russian). 
  • Kravets O. Russia’s “Pure Spirit”: vodka branding and its politics. Journal of Macromarketing, 2012, no. 32 (4), pp. 361–376. (In English). 
  • Kukhterin S. Fathers and patriarchs in communist and post-communist Russia. Gender, state and society in soviet and post-soviet Russia. London: Routledge, 2000, pp. 71–89. (In English). 
  • Laruelle M. The ‘Russian Idea’ on the Small Screen: Staging National Identity on Russia’s TV. Demokratizatsiya, 2014, no. 22 (2), pp. 313–333. (In English). 
  • Moore M. Which People and what land? Territorial right-holders and attachment to territory. International Theory, 2014, no. 6 (1), pp. 121–140. (In English). 
  • Müller M. Making great power identities in Russia: an ethnographic discourse analysis of education at a Russian elite university. Zurich: LIT, 2008. (In English). 
  • Pawłusz E., Seliverstova O. Everyday nation building in the post-soviet space. Methodological reflections. Studies of transition states and societies, 2016, pp. 69–86. (In English). 
  • Real men’ or ‘nutters’? Russia’s take on hooligans. Euronews. Available at: http://www. euronews.com/2016/06/15/real-men-or-nutters-russia-s‑take-on-hooligans (accessed August 30, 2016). (In English). 
  • Riabov O., Riabova T. The remasculinization of Russia? Problems of Post-Communism, 2014, no. 61 (2), pp. 23–35. (In English). 
  • Rose J. Russian ‘Ultras’ mock England fans they attacked with telescopic truncheons and karate moves before leaving Eagle-shaped calling cards behind. The Daily Mirror. Available at: http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/russian-ultras-mock-england-fans‑8172388 (accessed August 30, 2016). (In English). 
  • Russia’s Internet use exploding. Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/markadomanis/2013/05/18/russias-internet-use-is-exploding/(accessed August 30, 2016). (In English). 
  • Sartorti R. Pictures at an exhibition: Russian land in a global world. Studies in East European thought, 2010, no. 62 (3–4), pp. 377–399. (In English). 
  • Shah T. Modernization as Westernization? The geopolitical consequences of ethno-nationalism analyzed through Russian Art. The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 2013, 41, pp. 744–760. (In English). 
  • Skey M. national belonging and everyday life: The significance of nationhood in an uncertain world. London; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. (In English). 
  • Sperling V., Making the public patriotic: militarism and anti-militarism in Russia. Russian nationalism and the national reassertion of Russia. London: Routledge, 2009, pp. 218–271. (In English). 
  • Strauss J. Putin’s language is becoming the talk of the vulgar. The Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1446241/Putins-language-is-becoming-the-talk-of-the-vulgar.html (accessed August 14, 2019). (In English).
  • Sukovataia O. T. [From ‘masculine trauma’ to ‘masculine neurosis’: gender politics in soviet and post-soviet mass culture]. Labirint. Zhurnal social’no-gumanitarnyh issledovanij [Labyrinthe: journal of social-humanitarian studies], 2012, no. 5. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/ ot-maskulinnosti-travmy-k‑maskulinnosti-nevroza-gendernye-politiki-v‑sovetskoy-i‑postsovetskoy-massovoy-kulture (accessed August 14, 2019). (In Russian). 
  • Szerszynski B., Urry J. Cultures of cosmopolitanism. The Sociological Review, 2002, no. 50 (4), pp. 461–481. (In English). 
  • Tartakovskaia I. [The Memory of the Participation on war efforts as a resource for the construction of masculinity]. Sposoby byt’ muzhchinoj: transformacii maskulinnosti v 21 veke [The possibilities of being men: the transformation of masculinity in the 21st century]. Moscow: Fund “Evenya” Publ., 2013, pp. 97–117. (In Russian). 
  • Tikhonova N. E. [Gender Aspects of the Reform of the 90s in Russia on the situation of poor urban households]. Gendernoe ravenstvo v Rossii: zakonodatel’stvo, politika, praktika. Materialy nauchno-ekspertnogo seminara [Gender Equality in Russia: Legislation, Policy, and Practice. Materials of a Scientific and Expert Seminar]. Moscow, 2003. Available at: http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2005/0221/analit04.php (accessed August 14, 2019). (In Russian). 
  • Tsipko A. Russkaya naciya — eto mif [The Russian nation is a myth]. Moscow Komsomolets, 2018, May 15. Available at: https://www.mk.ru/social/2018/05/15/russkaya-naciya-eto-mif.h (accessed August 14, 2019). (In Russian). 
  • Vladimir Putin threatened to hang Georgia leader by the balls. The Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/3454154/Vladimir-Putin-threatened-to-hang-Georgia-leader-by-the-balls.html (accessed August 14, 2012). (In English). 
  • Zdravomyslova E., Temkina A. Krizis maskulinnosti v poznesovetskom diskurse [The crisis of masculinity in the post-Soviet discourse] Collection on the study of masculinity in Russia. 2001. Available at: http://www.owl.ru/win/books/articles/tz_m.htm (accessed August 14, 2019). (In Russian). 
  • Zhivov A. [Why there are no Russians in Russia: An analysis of the constitution, logic and common sense]. Ridus, 2017, December 4. Available at: https://www.ridus.ru/news/266697. (accessed August 14, 2019). (In Russian).