Kolomiets O. P. From the History of the Development of Ethnography in Chukotka
Oxana P. KOLOMIETS — Candidate of Historical Sciences, North-East Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute N. A. Shilo Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, Anadyr)
FROM THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ETHNOGRAPHY IN CHUKOTKA
ABSTRACT. The article looks into the main directions of the ethnographic research conducted by the scholars from the Laboratory of History and Economics of the NEISRI FEB RAS (Anadyr) from the 1980s and up to the present day. Ethnographers are few in Chukotka and the spectrum of their academic interests is rather wide. The team cooperates closely with ethnographers and anthropologists from other regions and participates in interdisciplinary projects. At different times the researchers studied ethnomedicine of the peoples of the North, medical and social characteristics of the population of Chukotka and their systems of traditional natural resource management. Currently the laboratory staff is engaged in researching the issues of the present situation of the indigenous peoples of Chukotka and the impact of the industrial development of the region. They focus on the state of modern reindeer breeding and marine mammal hunting, problems of employment, social and cultural fields, experiences of interaction between indigenous peoples and industrial companies and the corporate social responsibility of the latter. Modern urban and rural life of the aboriginal populations is also explored; monitoring of the cultural situation of reindeer herders and sea hunters of Chukotka is carried out on the basis of annual expeditions to national villages, as well as general observation of the ethnocultural situation among the indigenous and migrant populations of the region. The present paper emphasizes the need to continue collecting and systematizing ethnographic materials on modern social relations in Chukotka, transformation of traditional and everyday culture, modern ethnocultural images, interethnic relations and other important issues. Research in this area would provide us with a better understanding of the adaptive capacities of the northern ethnic groups in the modern context.
KEYWORDS: ethnography, Chukotka, research trends, research projects, traditional culture, reindeer herding, seahunters, actual problems
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