Golovnev A. V. Arctic Nomads: the Art of Movement
Andrei V. GOLOVNEV — Member of the RAS, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, Saint Petersburg)
ABSTRACT. Nomadism is not a thing of the past, it is a living culture with its own present and future, which does not seem to die out but rather transforms its appearance. For this reason one should study it not as a fading tradition but as a school of mobility teaching us how to move and how to adapt. Such a study would previously be difficult not only because nomadism was associated with barbarity, but also due to the lack of means for its documentation. The visual and virtual revolution brought along new instruments of data recording and analysis. The author’s method of anthropology or ethnography of movement, named TMA (tracking– mapping–acting), suggests the documentation of motion by means of cartography and GPS-monitoring combined with visual tracking. Our research on Arctic nomadism is based on the studies of Chukchi, Nenets and Izhma Komi nomadic traditions as represented in the regions of Chukotka, Yamal and the Kola Peninsula, where fieldwork was carried out in 2013–2018.
The three Eurasian Arctic areas appear to have equal reindeer herding potentials, as the populations of reindeers in Chukotka, Yamal and Fennoscandia (which includes Scandinavian and Kola tundras) hover around half a million heads. The mobility patterns of the three nomadic communities vary against the landscape, the proximity to seashores, mountains and forests, as well as to sedentary groups, administrative centers and industrial facilities. Of the three reindeer herding nomadic traditions under discussion the Yamal (Nenets) one appears to be the most stable, since it retains the algorithms of joint movement of people and animals, rhythmical functioning of the “transformer”, implementation of the principle of technical animation, etc. The Chukotka case represents a matrix of three-level mobility (pedestrian, reindeer and motor/ air “trajectories”) which comes with a number of critical situations and risks. As for the Kola pattern with its transportation and technological “blend” and the substitution of traditional reindeer breeding by the industrial production of reindeer meat, it seems to be not as much a form of nomadism as a mechanism (for watching, rounding up and butchering animals). The art of movement performed by the Arctic nomads consists in the diversity of the dynamic transformability of roaming and camping, going and staying, shepherds and herds (in Yamal), as well as in the three-level mobility matrix in the setting of constant risk (in Chukotka) and the management of reindeer production by the means of post-nomadic technologies(in Kola tundra).
KEWORDS: anthropology of movement, nomadism, reindeer herding, Arctic, Nenets, Chukchi, Sami, Izhma Komi
Beach H. The Devitalization and Revitalization of Sámi Dwellings in Sweden. About the Hearth: Perspectives on the Home, Hearth and Household in the Circumpolar North. New York; Oxford: Berghahn, 2013, pp. 80–102. (in English).
Bogoraz V. G. Materialnaya kultura chukchey [The Material Culture of the Chukchi]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1991, 224 p. (in Russ.).
Bogoraz V. G. Chukchi [Chukchi]. Leningrad: Izdatelstvo Instituta narodov Severa TsIK SSSR Publ., 1934, part 1, 192 p. (in Russ.).
Charnoluskiy V. V. V krayu letuchego kamnya [At the Edge of the Flying Stone]. Moscow: Mysl’ Publ., 1972, 300 p. (in Russ.).
Chernyakov Z. Ye. Ocherki etnografii saamov [Essays on Sami Ethnography]. Rovaniemi: Lapland Univ. Publ., 1998, 126 p. (in Russ.).
Deleuze G., Guattari F. A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Mineapolis; London: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1987, 612 p. (in English).
Golovnev A. V. [To the History of Nenets Reindeer Husbandry]. Kulturnye i khozyaystvennye traditsii narodov Zapadnoy Sibiri [Cultural and Economic Traditions of the Peoples of Western Siberia]. Novosibirsk: HGPI Publ., 1989, pp. 94–108. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V. [Nenents: Reindeer-Breeders and Hunters]. Narody Sibiri: prava i vozmozhnosti [Peoples of Siberia: Rights and Opportunities]. Novosibirsk: SB of the RAS, 1997, pp. 80–90. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V. Peoples and Borders of the Russian North. In: Special Issue on the North. Scandinavian-Canadian Studies, 2000–2001, vol. 13, ppp. 22–34. (in English).
Golovnev A. V. Antropologiya dvizheniya (drevnosti Severnoy Yevrazii) [Anthropology of Movement (Antiquities of the North Eurasia)]. Ekaterinburg: UrB of the RAS, “Volot” Publ., 2009, 497 p. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V. [Migration, Travel, and Neo-Nomadism]. Ural’skij istoriceski vestnik [Ural Historical Journal], 2014, no. 4 (45), pp. 121–126. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V. [The Arctic Nomads: Strategies of Mobility]. Arkheologiya, etnografi ya i antropologiya Evrazii [Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia], 2016, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 131–140. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. Challenges to Arctic Nomadism: Yamal Nenets Facing Climate Change Era Calamities. Arctic Anthropology, 2017, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 40–51. (in English).
Golovnev A. V. [Arctic Ethnodesign]. Ural’skij istoriceski vestnik [Ural Historical Journal], 2017, no. 2 (55), pp. 6–15. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V. [Conceptualisation of Mobility in Anthropology and Ethnography]. Ural’skij istoriceski vestnik [Ural Historical Journal], 2018, no 3 (60), pp. 6–15. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V., Lezova S. V., Abramov I. V., Belorussova S. Yu., Babenkova N. A. Etnoekspertiza na Yamale: nenetskie kochevya i gazovye mestorozhdeniya [Ethno-Expertise on Yamal: Nenets Routs and Gas Fields]. Ekaterinburg: AMB Publ., 2014, 232 p. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V., Perevalova E. V., Abramov I. V., Kukanov D. A., Rogova A. S., Usenyuk S. G. Kochevniki Arktiki: tekstovo-vizualnye miniatyury [Arctic Nomads: Narrative- Visual Miniatures]. Ekaterinburg: “Alfaprint” Publ., 2015, 132 p. (in Russ.).
Golovnev A. V., Garin N. P., Kukanov D. A. Olenevody Yamala (materialy k Atlasu kochevykh tekhnologiy) [Reindeer Herders of Yamal (Research Materials for the Atlas of Nomadic Technologies)]. Ekaterinburg: UrB of the RAS, 2016, 152 p. (in Russ.).
Grey P. A. [The Current State of Reindeer Breeding in Chukotka] Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review], 2016, no. 2, pp. 44–56. (in Russ.).
Ingold T. Being Alive. Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description. London; New York: Routledge, 2011, 270 p. (in English).
Kuchinskiy M. G. [The Rhetoric of Traditionalism and Environmental Realities]. Rasy i narody [Races and Nations]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2007, iss. 33, pp. 58–89. (in Russ.).
Leed E. J. The Mind of the Traveler: From Gilgamesh to Global Tourism. New York: Basic Books, 1991, 316 p. (in English).
Mikhaylova Ye. A. Skitaniya Varvary Kuznetsovoy. Chukotskaya ekspeditsiya Varvary Grigorevny Kuznetsovoy. 1948–1951 gg. [The Wanderings of Varvara Kuznetsova. Chukotka Expedition of Varvara Kuznetsova. 1948–1951]. St. Petersburg: Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the RAS Publ., 2015, 190 p. (in Russ.).
Mironenko O. [Ways to Optimize the Land Use System and Land Management of Reindeer Herding]. Novosti olenevodstva [Reindeer News], 2000, no. 1. Available at: http://academnet. neisri.ru/academnet/infocentr/f_f/oleni/1-2000/5.html (accessed: 01.11.2018). (in Russ.).
Pervonachalnoe zaselenie Arktiki chelovekom v usloviyakh menyayushcheysya prirodnoy sredy: atlas-monografiya [Initial Human Colonization of Arctic in Changing Paleoenvironments: Atlas-monograph]. Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2014, 519 p. (in Russ.).
Sever i Severyane. Sovremennoe polozhenie korennykh malochislennykh narodov Kraynego Severa, Sibiri i Dalnego Vostoka [North and Northerners. The Current Situation of the Indigenous Peoples of the Far North, Siberia and the Far East]. Moscow: Instit. of Ethnology and Anthropology of the RAS Publ., 2012, 204 p. (in Russ.).
Urry J. Mobilnosti [Mobilities]. Mosocw: Praksis Publ., 2012, 576 p. (in Russ.).
Vaté V. Dwelling and the Lanscape among the Reindeer Herding Chukchis of Chukotka. Landscape and Culture in Northern Eurasia. Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press, 2011, pp. 135–160. (in English).