Davydov V. N. Strategies of Using the Space and Autonomy Regimes: the Relations of Evenkis and the State in the Northern Baikal

Vladimir N. DAVYDOV — Candidate of social sciences, PhD in Anthropology, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, Saint Petersburg) 

E-mail: davydov.kunstkamera@gmail.com

 

 Download  |  Go to Issue #2. 2018

 

ABSTRACT. Evenkis have always lived in places of cultural interactions and contacts. There were practically no places where they would stay in isolation, without relations with their neighbors and the administrative bodies created by the state.This article analyzes the transformation of the mobility of the northern Baikal Evenkis, approaching it as a result of complex interactions occurring in the context of combining different temporalities — specific ways of organizing movements and practices over time(first — related to the mobility of hunters and herders, second — manifested due to the presence of the state). Each institution and social group act withintheir own temporality. An attempt to combine different temporal regimes leads to the emergence of new forms of local people’s mobility. Joint movements with reindeer, as well as environmental knowledge and skills, gave Evenkis the possibility of a long autonomous existence.The emergence of new centers for the redistribution of resources inevitably entailed a change in the strategies employed by Evenkis and affected the change in the degree of their autonomy from the state institutions. As a result of the establishment of a public supply system and the construction of infrastructure, it gradually decreased. Consideration of this process helps to investigate the qualitative changes in the mobility practices of the northern Baikal Evenkis. A distinctive feature of these changes is an increase of the pendulum movements between the intensively used places.

KEYWORDS: mobility, use of space, autonomy, temporality, sedentarization, state, infrastructure, Northern Baikal Evenkis

УДК 39(57) 

DOI 10.31250/2618-8600-2018-46-66 

 

REFERENCES

Anderson D. G. Identity and Ecology in Arctic Siberia: The Number One Reindeer Brigade. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000, 272 p. (in English). 

Certeau M. de. Izobretenie povsednevnosti. 1. Iskusstvo delatʼ [The Invention of Everyday Life. 1. The Art of Doing]. St. Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg, 2013, 330 p. (in Russ.). 

Davydov V. N. [Mediator’s Power: Kaiurs-Evenkis and the Use of Reindeer Transport in the Northern Baikal]. Rannie formy potestarnykh system [Early Forms of the Potest Systems]. St. Petersburg: Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the RAS Publ., 2013, pp. 267– 280. (in Russ.). 

Davydov V. N. [The Use of Mobile and Stationary Structures by Evenkis and the Policy of Transition to a Settled Way of Life in the Northern Baikal]. Sotsialnaya organizatsiia u narodov Sibiri: traditsiia i sovremennostʼ [Social Organization among the Peoples of Siberia: Tradition and Modernity]. St. Petersburg: Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the RAS Publ., 2017, pp. 162–201. (in Russ.). 

Davydov V. N. Temporality of Movements in the North: Pragmatic Use of Infrastructure and Reflexive Mobility of Evenki and Dolgan Hunters, Reindeer Herders, and Fishers. Sibirica, 2017, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 14–34.(in English). 

Davydova E. A. [“Consumption Procedures” of the State Order by Chukchis (Based on Materials from the End of the 18th–19th Centuries)]. Teoriia i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiia [Theory and Practice of Social Development], 2015, no. 19, pp. 135–138. (in Russ.). 

Doppel’mair G. G. Sobolinyi promysel na severo-vostochnom poberezh’e Baikala: materialy Barguzinskoi ekspeditsii G. G. Doppel’maira 1914–1915 gg. [Sable Fisheries on the North-Eastern Coast of Baikal: Materials from the Barguzin Expedition of G. G. Doppel’mair 1914–1915]. Verkhneudinsk; Leningrad.: Izdatel’stvo GosplanaBMASSR Publ., 1926, 360 p. (in Russ.). 

Dumont A. The Many Faces of Nomadism among the Reindeer Ewenki. Reclaiming the Forest: The Ewenki Reindeer Herders of Aoluguya. New York: Berghahn Books, 2015, pp. 77–100. (in English). 

Golovnev A. V. [Arctic Ethnodesign]. Ural’skij istoriceski vestnik [Ural Historical Journal], 2017, no. 2 (55), pp. 6–15. (in Russ.). 

Golovnev A. V., Perevalova E. V., Abramov I. V., Kukanov D. A., Rogova A. S., Useniuk S. G. Kochevniki Arktiki: tekstovo-vizualnye miniatiury [Nomads of the Arctic: Textual and Visual Miniatures]. Ekaterinburg: “Al’fa Print” Publ., 2015, 132 p.(in Russ.).

Ingold T. The Temporality of the Landscape. World archaeology, 1993, no. 2 (25), pp. 152– 174. (in English). 

Lavrillier A. Climate Change among Nomadic and Settled Tungus of Siberia: Continuity and Changes in Economic and Ritual Relationships with the Natural Environment. Polar record, 2013, no. 3 (49), pp. 260–271. (in English). 

Malykh P. [Orochens of the Barguzin Taiga]. Zabaikalskii taezhnik [Zabaikal Taiga Dweller], 1925, no. 2, pp. 8–10. (in Russ.). 

Martis K. C. The Geographical Dimensions of a New Nation, 1780s–1920s. North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001, pp. 143–164. (in English). 

Morris A. Centuries of Black Protest: Its Significance for America and the World. Race in America: The Struggle for Equality. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1993, pp. 19–72. (in English). 

Neupokoev V. [Big Shaman-Kyndygir (From the Legends of the Northern Baikal Tunguses)]. Zhizn Buryatii [Life of Buryatia], 1926, no. 4–6, pp. 28–30. (in Russ.). 

Shirokogoroff S. M. Sotsialnaia organizatsiia severnykh tungusov (s vvodnymi glavami o geograficheskom rasprostranenii i istorii etikh grupp) [Social Organization of the Northern Tungus. With Introductory Chapters Concerning Geographical Distribution and History of these Groups].Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura Publ., 2017, 671 p. (in Russ.). 

Shubin A. S. [Contemporary Evenki Village]. Issledovaniia po istorii Buriatii. Trudy kompleksnogo nauchno-issledovatel’skogo instituta [Studies on the History of Buryatia. Proceedings of the Complex Research Institute], 1963, no. 11, pp. 179–188. (in Russ.). 

Sirina A. A. Evenki i eveny v sovremennom mire: samosoznanie, prirodopol’zovanie, mirovozzrenie [Evenkis and Evens in the Modern World: Self-Consciousness, Nature Management, Worldview]. Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura Publ., 2012, 604 p.(in Russ.). 

Sirina A. A. Katangskie evenki v XX veke: rasselenie, organizatsiia sredy zhiznedeiatel’nosti [Katanga Evenkis in the 20th Century: Resettlement, Organization of Living Environment]. Moscow; Irkutsk: Ottisk, 2002, 286 p. (in Russ.). 

Sirina A. A. People Who Feel the Land: The Ecological Ethic of the Evenki and Eveny. Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia, 2008, no. 3 (47), pp. 9–37. (in English). 

Ssorin-Chaikov N. V. Two Lenins: A Brief Anthropology of Time. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2017, 167 p. (in English). 

Tugolukov V. A. Sledopyty verkhom na oleniakh [Trackers Riding Reindeer]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1969, 215 p. (in Russ.). 

Urry J. Mobil’nosti [Mobilities]. Mosocw: Praksis Publ., 2012, 576 p. (in Russ.). 

Vasilevich G. M. [Ancient Hunting and Reindeer Herding Ritualsof Evenkis]. Sbornik MAE [Volume of MAE]. Leningrad: Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the RAS Publ., 1957, vol. 17, pp. 151–186. (in Russ.). 

Vasilevich G. M. Evenki: Istoriko-etnograficheskie ocherki (XVIII — nachalo XX v.) [Evenkis: Historic-Ethnographic Essays (18 — beginning of the 20th Centuries]. Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1969, 305 p. (in Russ.). 

Zabelin K. A. [Essays on the Economy of the North Baikal Region]. Zhizn’ Buriatii [Life of Buryatia], 1930, no. 4, pp. 35–57. (in Russ.).

Ssorin-Chaikov N. V. Two Lenins: A Brief Anthropology of Time. Chicago, 2017.