Kozintsev A. G. Southern Adstratum in Proto-Indo-European and the Earliest Stage of Indo-European History

Alexander G. Kozintsev — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Russia, Saint-Petersburg)

E-mail: agkozintsev@gmail.com

 

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ABSTRACT. Using the STARLING database compiled by G. S. Starostin, A. S. Kassian, and M. A. Zhivlov, lexical affinities between 12 Indo-European (IE) languages and 29 languages representing eight other families were assessed by means of a two-dimensional statistical model. J. S. Greenberg’s Eurasiatic macrofamily and the Indo-Uralic macrofamily within it have been confirmed. The “shortest” distance between the IE and Uralic families connects Hittite with Ugric. The IE family is markedly intermediate. It displays a small (5.6 %) but significant “Semitic” tendency relative to the Uralic family, likely indicating a horizontal transfer within a Sprachbund. The “Northern Caucasian” tendency in IE is possible but insignificant, and the “Kartvelian” tendency is absent. The search for a single IE homeland appears futile because of the mobility of early proto-Indo-Europeans (E. G. Sturtevant’s Indo-Hittites) and the complexity of their reconstructed migration route before the split of the IE family. After separating from the Uralians, they moved from the Indo-Uralic homeland, located not far from southern Ural, to northern Iran. Having rounded the Caspian Sea, the Indo-Hittites migrated to the Near East, where they met the Semites. Then they split into two groups, one of which, ancestral to Anatolians, moved on to Asia Minor, whereas the second one turned northward and, having passed along the eastern Black Sea coast, reached the boundary with the steppe. The date of this migration, established archaeologically at the late fifth millennium BCE, matches the glottochronological estimate of the split between the Anatolian branch and the rest of the IE family. The migrants’ contacts with the aboriginal steppe population intensified during the Maykop period after 3 500 BCE and gave rise to the late proto-IE (steppe IE) dialect, which was ancestral to all the IE languages except Anatolian. 

KEYWORDS: Indo-European languages, Uralic languages, Semitic languages, lexicostatistics, Nostratics 

УДК 811.1=11/=29 

DOI 10.31250/2618-8600-2018-1-143-174 

 

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